The God of the Old Testament (Covenant) is a territorial god of war.
The God of the New Testament is a universal god of love.
More correctly, one should refer to the “bibles” rather than “the bible”. Many,
many translations have been made, and recently using freestyle wording
rather than a translation of the text, both Old Testament and New Testament.
The Bible is considered to be based upon divine revelation, by both the
Jewish and Christian communities, and by some Christians as inerrant i.e.,
every word to be true and revealed by God, incapable of error, infallible.
As to what books should be included in the bible, the Jewish and Protestant
bibles agree insofar as the old testament is concerned, but the Roman
Catholics included the “Apocrypha” in the Septuagint translation of the Old
Testament into Greek. These are 7 books, plus additions to Esther, Jeremiah
The actual original Old Testament appears to have been written about 850 B.C.
The first five books are called by some the five books of Moses; however,
Moses, if he lived at all, has dates varying from 1300-1150 B.C., centuries
The Exodus, if it happened at all, has estimated dates of 1648-1208 B.C., so
only the latter dates coincide with the estimated dates for the life of Moses.
The Greek Septuagint translation of the Old Testament from the Hebrew was
done by 70-72 Jewish scholars meeting in Alexandria, Egypt in 200-300 B.C. It
is still used by the Eastern Orthodox Church, who have included 3 of the
books of the Apocrypha.
The Vulgate is a Latin translation of the Septuagint, done by Jerome and
completed by 404 AD, and was accepted as official by the Roman Catholic
Church at the Council of Trent (1545-1563 AD).
Several editions of the Vulgate have been prepared, i.e. in 1590 AD and 1976
It contains all the books of the Apocrypha.
The oldest manuscript is dated from the 6th century, and is in Greek, i.e. the
The Jewish Old Testament books use were canonized, i.e. accepted as an
authoritative list, by an assembly of rabbis meeting at Jamnia about 90-100 AD.
This text did not include the Apocrypha.
However, in Jesus’ time, the new testament makes references and quotations
from the Apocrypha, plus Enoch, and a few others.
The actual text of the Old Testament is unsure, and cannot be authoritatively
The original Hebrew text used by the 70 Jewish scholars in 200-300 BC to
create the Greek Septuagint translation has disappeared, although the dead
sea scrolls and other sources tend to confirm its authenticity. It consisted
only of consonants, strung together.
The most common Hebrew text is the Masoretic, dated between 600-800 AD.,
nearly 1000 years after the missing Egyptian Hebrew text, which added vowels
by adding marks to the consonated text, and it divided the words and
A comparison of the Septuagint and Masoretic translation shows so many
differences that an authoritative decision as to which is correct is impossible.