Evolution

“Of Evolution”

“In the beginning.”

Intelligent  people have asked themselves many questions over
the millennia and continue to ask the same questions today.   Two
are  1) How did life begin?  2) How did the universe begin?

In  the first book of the Judaic Bible,  which is accepted by
Jews,  Christians and Muslims as authoritative,  the first  verse
begins with “In the beginning.”

The sequence of creation is reasonably close to the  sequence
deduced  by science,  particularly when one realizes that Genesis
was  written 4000 years ago,  and modern scientific  methods  are
only about 300 years old.

The table below shows the similarities and differences:

Genesis 1:1-2:3                    Science

I.    In the beginning God          Big bang,
created the heaven &          Explosion.
the earth                     Universe still
expanding.  Created
stars, light,
planets, moons.
Created “light”, day
and night

II.  Created “firmament”, i.e.
“Heaven” between water
above “Heaven” and water
below “Heaven”

III.  Land appears from             Land & vegetation
waters, vegetation
grows and reproduces
after its own kind

IV.    Made stars, sun and
moon

V.    Created  fish,  birds         Fish  &  birds
and “every living
creature that moveth”

VI.   Created land based “living”   Land based animals
creatures after his/her
kind, i.e. species

Created man & woman           Man & woman
in His own image

VII.   Ended His work

(We leave it to the inerrant scholars to reconcile the differences in
the two Biblical creation stories, and the contradictions and
duplications in the first.)

The  defining difference between the Biblical  narrative  and
the  scientific explanation is the belief in God the  Creator  in
the  first,  and the absence of any intelligent being guiding  an
evolutionary process in the second.

For  me,  the  complexity,  the   variety,  the  nature,  the
existence   of human beings,  demands the acceptance of a creator
God.

Note the difficulty in accepting an atheistic,  purely scien-
tific thesis of how life on earth began.

Malcolm W.  Browne,  reporter for the  New York Times , writing
on  April  30,  1993,  describes  science’s  latest  thoughts  on
evolution   based  upon  the  finding  in  Australia  of   fossil
microorganisms embedded in tiny mineral grains,  which themselves

were embedded in rock that the scientists judged was formed 3.485
billion years ago.

As  scientists believe that the planet Earth solidified  into
its present form about 4.6 billion years ago,  and that the earth
was  subject  to meteorite bombardment until  3.9  billion  years
back,  thus  preventing the start and continuation of life,  this
means  that the discovered life forms had only 400 million  years
to  evolve  from the theorized soup of  chemicals  consisting  of
amino  acids  and other carbon-based chemicals somewhere  on
the
primordial Earth from which scientists presume life began by some
yet-to-be explained mechanism.

Just how complex this process can be would be to consider the
mechanism  of  a single living cell,  the building block  of  all
plant and animal life.

A  cell is composed of a central nucleus and an outer  region
called the cytoplasm, together constituting protoplasm.

This  cell  is  synthesizing  100  molecules  per  second  of
proteins  in  a particular sequence of the amino acids under  the
catalytic  influence  of  enzymes,   themselves  a  synthesis  of
proteins  under  the  direction of the sequences of  bases  in  a
molecule  of RNA (ribonucleic acid) transmitted from the  nucleus
to   the   cytoplasm   and   produced   by   the   nuclear    DNA
(deoxyribonucleic    acid),     life’s    genetic    code    with
1,000,000,000,000   different   combinations  per  cell,   in   a
particular sequence of bases.

Amino Acids

Put another way, the cell nucleus contains a trillion bits of
genetic information organized in 3 nucleotides per amino acid  in
genes and chromosomes.

A  gene  capable  of  producing a complete  protein  must  be
hundreds of nucleotides long,  as proteins are at least comprised
of hundreds of amino acids, each three nucleotides long.

A mutation is the change of one nucleotide in a gene.

Is  it  any  wonder that scientists  – or  Darwin  – make  no
attempt  to explain how these amino acids came into being as part
of the primordial “soup”.

Getting  back to Malcolm W.  Browne and the  New  York  Times ,
complicating  the  riddle for the scientists,  the  single-celled
fossils resemble certain modern bacteria and cyano-bacteria which
are  capable  of  photosynthesis.  This  would  be  a  surprising
achievement for organisms that had so little time to evolve (from
the “soup”).

Unable to explain this phenomenon,  some scientists  theorize
that  life on Earth came from some other place in our galaxy,  or
the universe (the Panspermia theory).

Some   even  go  so  far  as  to  suggest  that   intelligent
extraterrestiral beings might have deliberately seeded the galaxy
with durable organisms such as spores or bacteria,  known by them
to  be  capable of surviving eons of space  travel  in  suspended
animation.

The bottom line for me is that “God” is the Creator of the
universe  and of life on Earth,  and that science is  unraveling
His methodology.

(Anything to avoid contemplation that “God” might be this intelligent
creator of life)

The   founding  fathers  of  the  United  States  also  found
themselves accepting this view,  even as they laid the foundation
of   their   nation  in  a  basically  secular   Declaration   of
Independence and subsequent Constitution.

In the  Declaration of Independence  of July 4,  1776,  mention
is made of “the Laws of Nature and of Nature’s God” and “Men  are
endowed  by  their  Creator”.   But  when it came to the drafting
of  the  Constitution of the United States  in September 17,  1787,
there is no mention of God in its Articles.

This  is quite unusual because,  although most of  them  (the
founding  fathers) resisted the literal Biblical view of creation
almost to a man, they agreed that God had created man.

“Here  is my creed.   I believe in one God,  Creator  of  the
Universe.   That He governs it by His providence.   That He ought
to be worshipped.  That the most acceptable service we render Him
is doing good to His other children”.

“The Divine Author of life.”
— Benjamin Franklin.

“The whole rational creation of God.”

— John Adams.

“Well aware that Almighty God both created the mind free.”

— Thomas Jefferson.

“The duty which we owe to our CREATOR.”

— James Madison.

“The Supreme Being gave existence to man”.

— Alexander Hamilton.

“Render to the Creator and Preserver those acknowledgements
which
are due to Him for our being.”

— Samuel Adams.

“I consider myself in the Hands of my Creator.”

— Thomas Paine.

(“In God we Trust”, Chapter 1, by Norman Cousins)

On   the  other  hand,   countless  thousands  of   otherwise
intelligent,  logical human beings deny the existence of God, and
hence the Creator.

To  these  people I can only say,  if you and mankind are  so
ingenious, so clever at the end of the 20th century, make me life
out of inorganic material.

Or  as the poet Walt Whitman said in “Leaves of  Grass”,  all
creation  is summed up in a blade of grass.   Make me a blade  of
grass.

Primeval Soup

It  boggles my mind that some rational people can profess  to
believe  that  “life” began millions of years ago  in  a  unique,
“perfect  mix” of primeval soup with ideal temperature conditions
that have never been duplicated since,  and has evolved “upwards”
in complexity all on its own,  without any intelligence to  guide
it, culminating in Homo Sapiens.

The natural law of nature is to retrogress.   Gardens, farms,
domestic animals all revert to the “wild” when human influence is
withdrawn.

Any  science  student,  any  scientist  will  attest  to  the
difficulty  of  conducting  inorganic  experiments  that  produce
results as they should.

Any  organic  scientist  will  attest to  the  difficulty  of
preserving simple bacteria cultures in the lab.

And life happened on its own?

Humans

A  curious  scientific   conundrum is  the  question  of  the
“missing link”,  the inexplicable gap in the evolutionary process
between apes, the Neanderthal Man, etc. and modern man.

Human  hands  were recently found in a French cave  dated  at
16,000 B.C.

But 50,000 years ago,  skull, bone, and fossil evidence shows
a   being,   called   humanoids  for  lack  of  a  better   term,
overwhelmingly different.

Bridging  the  gap  of a mere 34,000 years  by  a  miraculous
series  of  “mutations”  is something  even  the  most  dedicated
scientist  refuses to do.  The best thing they can do to pose the
question, that a link is missing.

Charles Darwin (1859-1872),  writing in the 19th century, has
had an enormous impact on the thinking of secular biologists  and
scientists.

In his book “Origin of the Species”,  he proves himself to be
a very fair-minded person and scientist.

In  addition to advocating his theory of natural selection as
an  explanation  for (a) progressive improvement in  the  charac-
teristics of members of a species, and (b) that slight variations
in  members of a  species   could   lead to  creation  of a new
species;   he   also  sets  forth  in  detail  the   intellectual
difficulties with his theory.

He  candidly  states that he is unable to  explain  how  life
began,  and  that  this is outside the scope of  his  book,   the
“Origin of the Species” in the first place.

Darwin  makes  much  of  the variations  people  can  achieve
through  conscious  manipulation  and  direction  of  the  mating
process  of domestic animals,  and by implication posits that  if
variations can be achieved by the conscious intervention of  man,
then  variations  will  occur  by the  accidental  randomness  of
nature.

But  although he often alludes to the existence  of  God,  he
does   not   advance  the  hypothesis that  God could have used
evolution in the creation process.

(A  personal observation on the idea of humans being  descen-
dents of a lower form of life.  In no other species is there such
a  wide  variation  of characteristics;  in size from  dwarfs  to
giants, in skin color, shape of facial features, body types, etc.
as is the case with Homo Sapiens.)

The window of evolutionary opportunity,  too,  is very,  very
short,  compared  to the millions/billions of years  given  other
evolutionary developments.

The fossil record vs. ape man, “you could put all the fossils
on  top of a single desk’ says Elwyn Simons of Duke  University.”
( Newsweek ) “The known fossil remains of man’s ancestors would
fit
on  a  billiard table.  That makes a poor platform from which  to
peer into the mists of the last few million years.” ( The New York
Times )

Homo  sapiens  appeared  in  the  fossil  record  some  fifty
thousand years ago.

“The  missing link between man and the apes…  is merely the
most glamorous of a whole hierarchy of phantom creatures.  In the
fossil record, missing links are the rule.” ( Newsweek )

Early  men  of  the Ice Age were  neither  brute  beasts  nor
semiapes  nor  cretins.   Another  fossil  type  is  called  Homo
Erectus– upright man.  Its brain size and shape do fall into the
lower  range  of  modern  man’s…   the  limb  bones  have  been
indistinguishable from those of homo sapiens.

Many  Neanderthal fossils have been found…  Another  fossil
type is Cro-Magnon man, which is virtually indistinguishable from
those of today.

We  are talking of 47,500 years between Homo Neanderthalensis
and  early Mousterian Man (50,000 B.C.),  and the statue of  King
Mycerinus and his queen (2,530 B.C.) revealing all the facial and
body features of modern man and woman.

That  something  dramatic occurred about  4000-2500  B.C.  is
apparent.

There are at least two striking physical differences  between
all species of men and apes;  one,  the opposing thumb,  and two,
the voice box.

And  on the mental level,  the creation and use of artifacts,
evolving into the industrialized civilization of today.

The  earliest  historic evidence of modern man in   Egypt  is
3100 B.C.  with the First Dynasty; the earliest evidence in India
is  2500 B.C.  with a well-preserved statue of a male torso  from
Harappa in the West Punjab;  the earliest evidence in Mesopotamia
dates from circa 3000 B.C.
————

Darwin

We  recommend to anyone trying to comprehend life in all  its
many  forms that they read Darwin’s “Origin of the Species”  from
cover to cover.   150 years after it was written, science has not
been  able  to shed any light on the difficulties to  his  theory
that he discusses.

We quote from his books, the “Origin of the Species” and “The
Descent or Origin of Man”.

Chapter II

“Generally the term (species) includes the unknown element of
a distant act of creation”.

Chapter III

“The causes which check the natural tendency of each species
to increase are most obscure”. (Discussing natural selection and
survival of the fittest).

On the interaction of plants and animals “Nearly all  orchids
absolutely require the visits of insects to fertilize them”.

“Visits  of bees are necessary for the fertilization of  some
kinds of clover”.

Chapter IV

“(Man)  can  neither originate varieties,  nor prevent  their
occurrence; he can preserve and accommodate such as do occur”.

Chapter VI “Difficulties of the Theory”

“First, why do we not everywhere see innumerable transitional
forms?   Why  is  not all nature in  confusion,  instead  of  the
species being, as we see them, well defined?”

“Secondly,  can  we  believe  that  natural  selection  could
produce,  on the one hand,  an organ of trifling importance, such
as the tail of a giraffe,  which seems as a fly-flapper,  and, on
the other hand, an organ so wonderful as the eye?”

“To suppose that the eye with all its inimitable contrivances
for  adjusting  the focus to different distances,  for  admitting
different amounts of light,  and for the correction of  spherical
and  chromatic  aberration,  could  have been formed  by  natural
selection,  seems,  I  freely  confess,  absurd  in  the  highest
degree”.

“How a nerve comes to be sensitive to light,  hardly concerns
us more than how life itself originated”.

“Have we any right to assume that the Creator works by intel-
lectual powers like those of man?”

“Thirdly,  can  instincts  be acquired and  modified  through
natural selection?”

“If   we  are  unable  to  account  for  the   characteristic
differences  of our several domestic breeds,  which  nevertheless
are generally admitted to have arisen through ordinary generation
from  one or a few parent-stocks,  we ought not to lay  too  much
stress  on  our  ignorance  of the precise cause  of  the  slight
analogous differences between true species”.

“(Some  naturalists) believe that many structures  have  been
created for the sake of beauty, to delight man”.

“Can we consider the sting of the bee as perfect, which, when
used against many kinds of enemies, cannot be withdrawn, owing to
the backward serratures,  and thus inevitably causes the death of
the insect by tearing out his viscera?”

Chapter VII

“…  asserted that the weakest part of my theory is,  that I
consider  all  organic beings as imperfect:   what I have  really
said is,  that all are not as perfect as they might have been  in
relation to their conditions”.

“Longevity  is a great advantage to all species,  so that  he
who  believes  in natural selection (would believe) that all  the
descendents have longer lives than their progenitors!”

“Why  have some animals had their mental powers  more  highly
developed than others,  as such development would be
advantageous
to all?”
Chapter VIII

“Many  instincts are so wonderful that their development will
probably  appear to the reader a difficulty sufficient  to  over-
throw my whole theory.  I may here premise that I have nothing to
do  with  the origin of the mental powers,  any more than I  have
nothing to do with that of life itself.

Chapter X

On   “innumerable  intermediate  links  not   now   occurring
everywhere throughout nature.”

The  Fossil  Record:  “The  living  world  is  not  a  single
array….  connected  by unbroken series of intergrades.”  Darwin
conceded  that  the “distinctness of specific (living) forms  and
their  not  being blended together  by  innumerable  transitional
links, is a very obvious difficulty.”

Darwin  admitted  that “If numerous species….  have  really
started into life at once,  the fact would be fatal to the theory
of evolution.”

“Why then is not every geological formation and every stratum
full of such intermediate links?…. the most obvious and serious
objection which can be urged against the theory.”

“Geology assuredly does not reveal any such  finely-graduated
organic chain, and this, perhaps, is the most obvious and serious
objection which can be urged against the theory”.

Chapter XI

“Scarcely  any  palaeontological discovery is  more  striking
than the fact that the forms of life change almost simultaneously
throughout the world”.

From “The Descent or Origin of Man”

“Many  unfortunately are still opposed to evolution in  every
form” (Experts in natural science).

“Human  characteristics:   erect,  shape of skull,  nakedness
(hairless except for head),  absence of a tail,  every individual
different except identical twins, opposing thumb, speech, smaller
canine teeth, color of skin”.

Chapter II

“The Duke of Argyll,  for instance,  insists that,  the human
frame has diverged from the structure of brutes, in the direction
of greater physical helplessness and weakness.   That is to  say,
it  is a divergence which of all other is the most impossible  to
ascribe to mere natural selection”.

Chapter III

Universal belief in unseen of spirited agencies, or God.

Chapter IV

“I  fully  subscribe  to the judgement of those  writers  who
maintain  that of all the differences between man and  the  lower
animals,  the  moral  sense  of  conscience is by  far  the  most
important”.

Chapter VI

“The  great  break in the organic chain between man  and  his
nearest  allies,  which cannot be bridged over by any extinct  or
living species,  has often been advanced as a grave objection  to
the belief that man is descended from some lower
form”.

(The famous “missing link”)

Chapter XXI

“Many  of  the  views  which have been  advanced  are  highly
speculative, and some no doubt will prove erroneous”.

“The high standard of our intellectual power and moral dispo-
sition is the greatest difficulty which presents itself”.

“Man…has few or no special instincts.”

“The  idea  of a universal and beneficient Creator  does  not
seem to arise in the mind of man,  until he has been elevated  by
long-continued culture”.

“Man scans with scrupulous care the character and pedigree of
his horses, cattle and dogs before he matches them.”

———-

“The  abrupt manner in which whole groups of species suddenly
appear   in  certain  formations  has  been  urged   by   several
paleontologists  as  a  fatal  objection to  the  belief  in  the
transmutation  of a species….  I allude to the manner in  which
species  belonging to several of the main divisions of the animal
kingdom  suddenly  appear  in  the  lowest  known   fossiliferous
rocks….”

It  was  assumed  by Darwin that as time passed  the  missing
fossil links would surely be found.

The Fossil Record

There  are  a hundred million  fossils,  all  catalogued  and
identified, in museums around the world.

The fossil record is full of trends that paleontologists have
been unable to explain.

Swedish  botanist Herbert Nilsson:   “it is not even possible
to  make  a caricature of an evolution  out  of  palaeobiological
facts. The fossil material is now so complete that… the lack of
transitional series cannot be explained as due to the scarcity of
material. The deficiencies are real, they will never be filled.”

The  fossil  record  contains no trace of  these  preliminary
stages  in  the development of  many-celled  organisms.  About  a
billion  years ago,  after some three billion years of  invisible
progress,  a  major breakthrough occurred.  The first many-celled
creatures appeared on earth.

At the start of the Cambrian period,  the fossil record takes
a unexplained dramatic turn.  A great variety of fully developed,
complex sea creatures appear so suddenly that this time is  often
called an “explosion” of living things.

In  the  layers  above that Cambrian outburst  of  life,  the
testimony of the fossil record is repeatedly the same:  New kinds
of  animals  and new kinds of plants  appear  suddenly,  with  no
connection  to  anything that went before them.  The  record  now
reveals  that  species typically survive for a  hundred  thousand
generations,  or  even a million or more,  without evolving  very
much.

To  the  question  why  we do  not  find  rich  fossiliferous
deposits belonging to these assumed earliest periods prior to the
Cambrian system, Darwin could give no satisfactory answer.

Geologists   have   discovered  many  unaltered   Precambrian
sediments, and they contained no fossils of complex organisms.

Spontaneous Generation

It  is  hard  to see  how  polymerization  (linking  together
smaller  molecules  to form bigger ones) could have proceeded  in
the  aqueous  environment  of  the  primitive  ocean,  since  the
presence  of  water favors depolymerization (breaking up  of  big
molecules into simpler ones) rather than polymerization.

There would be no accumulation of organic soup. Wald believes
this  to  be  “the  most  stubborn  problem  that  confronts   us
evolutionists.”

It   has  not  been  possible  to  observe  the   spontaneous
generation of life.

Although there are more than 100 amino acids, only twenty are
needed  for life’s proteins.  They come in two shapes – the left-
handed and the right-handed.  All of the twenty used in producing
life’s proteins are left-handed.

Add to the mysterious primordial formation of the amino acids
the  question of how  carbon,  sulphur,  nitrogen,  hydrogen  and
oxygen happened to come together to form amino acids in the first
place.

Inorganic carbon is quite rare, occuring only in diamonds and
graphite deposits.

As  for atmospheric carbon dioxide,  this is another mystery.
Plants use carbon dioxide for photosynthesis and give off oxygen.

Animals take in oxygen and give off carbon dioxide.

But plant life came first?

Astronomers  have  not detected free carbon  dioxide  in  the
atmospheres of other celestial bodies.

So  where did the carbon come from incorporated in the  first
amino acids?

The  old  puzzle  of the chicken and the egg rears  its  head
relative to proteins and DNA.  Hitching says: “Proteins depend on
DNA for their formation. But DNA cannot form without pre-existing
protein.”

The instructions within the DNA of a cell,  “if written  out,
would  fill  a thousand 600 page books,” explains the     National
Geographic.   The nucleus that contains the chromosomal threads is
less that four ten thousandths of an inch in diameter.

The  fertilized  egg in the mother’s womb  contains  all  the
parts  of  the emerging human body “down in writing.” The  heart,
lungs, kidneys, the eyes and ears, the arms and legs, the brain–
these and all other parts were “written down” in the genetic code
of  the fertilized egg in the mother’s womb.  Contained  in  this
code  are internal timetables for the appearance of these  parts,
each one in its proper order. This fact was recorded in the Bible
nearly  3000  years  before modern science  ever  discovered  the
genetic code.

Most  of  the  biochemical  complexity of  life  was  present
already  at the time the oldest surface rocks of the  Earth  were
formed.

Single  celled  animals can catch food,  digest,  get rid  of
wastes, move around, build houses, engage in sexual activity, and
with no tissues,  no organs,  no hearts,  no minds– really  have
everthing that we have got.

Diatoms…  contain green chlorophyll. Their food value is in
the  oil that diatoms make,  which helps them bob on the  surface
where their chlorophyll can bask in sunlight.

Photosynthesis happens in cell bodies called chloroplasts, so
small  that  400,000 can fit into the period at the end  of  this
sentence.  There  are 70 separate chemical reactions involved  in
this photosynthesis.

Photosynthesis:  plants  take in carbon dioxide and give  off
oxygen, but this is not completely understood by scientists. This
is  “a  process that no one has yet been able to reproduce  in  a
test tube.”

These Evolutionary Problems

The  gulf  between fish and amphibians:   the  backbone  would
have  had to undergo major modifications….  a pelvis  added….
gills  must change to lungs.  Most toads and frogs have eardrums.
Tongues would also have had to change.

The  gulf  between amphibian and reptile:    creatures  before
reptiles   had  soft,   jellylike  eggs  which  were   fertilized
externally….  shelled  eggs require internal  fertilization….
have  blood vessels that pick up oxygen that passes  through  the
shell and conduct it to the embryo.

Embryos  in  fish and amphibian eggs release their wastes  in
the  water as soluble urea.  But urea within the shelled eggs  of
reptiles would kill the embryos….  shelled eggs have  insoluble
uric acid. The egg yolk is food for the growing reptile, enabling
it  to  develop  fully before emerging  from  the  shell,  unlike
amphibians which do not hatch in the adult form.

Gulf  between  reptile and bird:   reptiles are  cold-blooded,
birds are warm-blooded. Birds must incubate their eggs. Birds are
selfless,   altruistic,   considerate,  and  deliberately  expose
themselves  to danger for their young.  Birds bones are thin  and
hollow,  unlike reptiles solid ones. A system of air sacs provide
internal circulation.

Reptiles  have a three-chambered heart;  a bird’s  heart  has
four  chambers.  Beak:   evolved  by  chance from the nose  of  a
reptile.

The gulf between reptile and mammal:   existence  of  mammary
glands  that  give  milk for the young which are  born  alive….
unlike baby reptiles,  mammals have the instincts and the muscles
to  suck  the milk from the mother.  Mammals need to  maintain  a
constant body temperature.

When  the amphibian supposedly evolved into  a  reptile,  the
wastes  eliminated changed from urea to uric acid.  But when  the
reptile  became a mammal there was a reversal.  Mammals went
back
to the amphibian way, eliminating wastes as urea.

Termites:   How do millions of blind workers coordinate their
efforts  to  build such  ingeniously  designed  structures?  They
exhibit something like a collective intelligence.

Clocks:   diatoms come up to the wet beach sand when the tide
is out. When the tide is in, they burrow back into the sand. Even
in  sand in the laboratory where there is no tidal ebb and  flow,
their clocks still make them come up and go down in time with the
tides.

Homing pigeons,  taken 625 miles away in any direction,  have
returned to their home lofts in one day.

Man

Gulf  to  man:   an enormously extended period of  growth  and
parental care….  power of abstract thought and speech,  ability
to  record  accumulated  knowledge…  man  also  has  moral  and
spiritual values.

Ape  men:   Why then,  is the “inferior” ape family still  in
existence,  but  not  a single one of the  presumed  intermediate
forms, which were supposed to be more advanced in evolution?

The  human  brain is easily the most mysterious part  of  the
human miracle.  The key brain cells,  the neurons, don’t actually
touch one another.  They are separated by synapses,  tiny  spaces
less than one millionth of an inch across. These gaps are bridged
by  chemicals  called neurotransmitters,  30 of which are  known.
These chemical signals are received at one end of the neuron by a
maze  of tiny filaments called dendrites.  The signals  are  then
transmitted  at  the  other end of the neuron by  a  nerve  fiber
called  an axon.  In the neurons the signals are electrical,  but
across the gaps they are chemical. Thus the transmission of nerve
signals is electrochemical in nature.

It  is the cerebral cortex of the brain that sets  man  apart
from any animal. It is less than a quarter of an inch thick.

We must,  by input from out surroundings,  program the brain.
Without that immense infusion of experience,  scarcely a trace of
intellect would appear. The human brain is genetically programmed
for language development.

The  human  brain could take any load of learning and  memory
put on it now, and a billion times that. This is the only example
in  existence where a species was provided with an organ that  it
still has not learned how to use.  Carl Sagan:   “the brain is  a
very big place in a very small space.”

Conclusions

The success of Darwinism has been accompanied by a decline in
scientific integrity; the difficulties he describes have not been
resolved even 140 years later.

Although  science  textbooks always promote the  evolutionary
viewpoint,  arguments  against evolution are rarely permitted  in
schools.  Evolution is a theory, but it is presented as a reality
to students.

The best that can be said is (1) there is life on earth,  (2)
there   are   distinct  species,   (3)  there   are   interesting
similarities in life forms.

– 30 –

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