It is hard to see how polymerization (linking together smaller
molecules to form bigger ones) could have proceeded in the
aqueous environment of the primitive ocean, since the presence of
water favors depolymerization (breaking up big molecules into
simpler ones) rather than polymerization.
There would be no accumulation of organic soup…. Wald believs
this to be “the most stubborn problem that confronts us
Although there are more than 100 amino acids. only twenty are
needed for life’s proteins. They come in two shapes – the left-
handed and the right-handed. All of the twenty used in producing
life’s proteins are left-handed.
The old puzzle of the chicken and the egg rears its head relative
to proteins and DNA. Hitching says: “Proteins depend on DNA for
their formation. But DNA cannot form without pre-existing
The instuctions within the DNA of a cell, “if written out, would
fill a thousand 600 page books,” explains National Geographic.
The nucleus that contains the chromosonal threads is less than
four ten thousandths of an inch in diameter.
It has not been possible to observe the spontaneous generation of
Most of the biochemical complexity of life was present already at
the time the oldest surface rocks of the Earth were formed.
single celled animals can catch food, digest, get rid of wastes,
move around, build houses, engage in sexual activity, and with no
tissues, no organs, no hearts and no minds – really have
everything that we have got.
Diatoms… contain green chlorophyll. Their food value is in the
oil that diatoms make, which helps them bob on the surface where
their chlorophyll can bask in sunlight.
Photosynthesis happens in cell bodies called chloroplasts, so
small that 400,000 can fit into the period at the end of this
sentence. There are 70 separate chemical reaction involved in
The Fossil Record: “The living world is not a single array….
connected by unbroken series of intergrades.” Darwin conceded
that the “distinctness of specific (living) forms and their not
being blended together by innumerable transitional links, is a
very obvious difficulty.”
Darwin admitted that “If numerous species…. have really started
into life at once, the fact would be fatal to the theory of
Darwin: “Why then is not every geological formation and every
stratum full of such intermediate links?….. the most obvious
and serious objection which can be urged against the theory.”
Darwin: “The abrupt manner in which whole groups of species
suddenly appear in certain formations has been urged by several
paleontologists as a fatal objection to the belief in the
transmutation of a species….. I allude to the manner in which
species belonging to several of the main divisions of the animal
kingdom suddenly appear in the lowest known fossiliferous
It was assumed by Darwin that as time passed the missing fossil
links would surely be found.
There are a hundred million fossils, all catalogued and
identified, in museums around the world.
The fossil record is full of trends that paleontologists have
been unable to explain.
Swedish botanist Heribert Nilsson: “it is not even possible to
make a caricature of an evolution out of palaeobiological facts.
The fossil material is now so complete that… the lack of
transitional series cannot be explained as due to the scarcity of
material. The deficiencies are real, they will never be filled.”
At the start of the Cambrian period, the fossil record takes an
unexplained dramatic turn. A great variety of fully developed,
complex sea creatures appear so suddenly that this time is often
called an “explosion” of living things.
Cambrian times. To the question why we do not find rich fossiliferous
deposits belonging to these assumed earliest periods prior to the
Cambrian system, Darwin could give no satisfactory answer.
Geologists have discovered many unaltered Precambrian sediments,
and they contain no fossils of complex organisms.
in the layeres above that Cambrian outburst of life, the
testimony of the fossil record is repeatedly the same: New kinds
of animals and new kinds of plants appear suddenly, with no
connection to anything that went before them. The record now
reveals that species typically survive for a hundred thousand
generations, or even a million or more, without evolving very
Scientists do not always base their conclusions on facts, for
there are glittering prizes in the form of fame and publicity.
The success of Darwinism was accompanied by a decline in
The gulf between fish and amphibian: the backbone would have
had to undergo major modifications…. a pelvis added….. gills
must change to lungs. Most toads and frogs have eardrums.
Tongues would also have to change.
the gulf between amphibian and reptile: creatures before
reptiles had soft, jellylike eggs which were fertilized
externally…. shelled eggs require internal fertilization….
has blood vessels that pick up oxygen that passes through the
shell and conduct it to the embryo.
Embryos in fish and amphibian eggs release their wastes in the
water as soluble urea. But urea within the shelled eggs of
reptiles would kill the embryos…. shelled eggs have insoluble
uric acid. The egg yolk is food for the growing reptile,
enabling it to develop fully before emerging from the shell,
unlike amphibians which do not hatch into the adult form.
Gulf between reptile and bird: retiles are cold blooded, birds
are warm blooded. birds must incubate their eggs. birds are
selfless, altruistic, considerate, and deliberately expose
themselves to danger for their young. Birds bones are thin and
hollow, unlike reptiles solid ones. A system of air sacs provide
internal air circulation.
Reptiles have a three chambered heart; a bird’s heart has four
chambers. Beak: evolved by chance from the nose of a reptile.
The gulf between reptile and mammal: existence of mammary glands
that give milk for the young which are born alive….. unlike
baby reptiles, mammals have the instincts and the muscles to suck
the milk from the mother. Mammals need to maintain a constant
When the amphibian supposedly evolved into a reptile, the wastes
eliminated changed from urea to uric acid. But when the reptile
became a mammal there was a reversal. Mammals went back to the
amphibian way, eliminating wastes as urea.
Many cases exist where two organisms appear designed to live
together. Algae and fungi team up and become lichens. only then
can they grow on bare rock to start turning rock into soil.
Termites: How do millions of blind workers coordinate their
efforts to build such ingeniously designed structures? They
exhibit something like a collective intelligence.
Clocks: diatoms come to the wet beach sand when the tide is out.
When the tide is in, they burrow back into the sand. Even in
sand in the laboratory where there is no tidal ebb and flow,
their clocks still make them come up and go down in time with the
Homing pigeons, taken 625 miles away in any direction, have
returned to their home lofts in one day.
The human capacity for altruism – anything that has evolved from
natural selection should be selfish…. a moral sense, too.
Science textbooks always promote the evolutionary viewpoint.
Arguments against evolution are rarely permitted in schools.
Evolution as a theory…. but it is presented as a reality to
Gulf to man: an enormously extended period of growth and
parental care…. power of abstract thought and speech, ability
to record accumulated knowledge… man also has moral and
Ape men: Why then, is the “inferior” ape family still in
existence, but not a single one of the presumed intermediate
forms, which were supposed to be more advanced in evolution?
Fossil record vs. ape men: Newsweek: “You could put all the
fossils on top of a single desk’ says Elwyn Simons of Duke
University.” The New York Times : “The known fossil remains of
mans ancestors would fit on a billiard table. That makes a poor
platform from which to peer into the mists of the last few
Newsweek : “The missing link between man and the apes… is
merely the most glamorous of a whole hierarchy of phantom
creatures. In the fossil record, missing links are the rule.”
the human brain is easily the most mysterious part of the human
miracle. The key brain cells, the neurons, dont actually
touch one another. They are separated by synapses, tiny spaces
less than one millionth of an inch across. These gaps are
bridged by chemicals called neurotransmitters, 30 of which are
known. these chemical signals are received at one end of the
neuron by a maze of tiny filaments called dendrites. The signals
are then transmitted at the other end of the neuron bya nerve
fiber called an axon. In the neurons the signals are electrical,
but across the gaps they are chemical. thus the transmission of
nerve signals is electrochemical in nature.
It is the cerebral cortex of the brain tha sets man apart from
any animal. It is less than a quarter of an inch thick.
We must, by input from out surroundings, program the brain.
Without that immense infusion of experience, scarcely a trace of
intellect would appear. The human brain is genetically
programmed for language development.
The human brain could take any load of learning and memory put on
it now, and a billion times that. This is the only example in
existence where a species was provided with an organ that it
still has not learned how to use. Carl Sagan: “the brain is a
very big place in a very small space.”